Database Management Basics

Database management is a system for managing the data that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and editing it when needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It’s a component of a company’s informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and growth of the company as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve huge amounts of data for a wide range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with a specific pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, also known as attributes, that represent facts about the data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most well-known database type currently. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to update many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of various external views based on different data models and may include virtual table that are calculated using generic data to improve the performance.

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